MSeqDR mvTool: A mitochondrial DNA web and API resource for comprehensive variant annotation, universal nomenclature collation, and reference genome conversion
Accurate mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variant annotation is essential for the clinical diagnosis of diverse human diseases. Substantial challenges to this process include the inconsistency in mtDNA nomenclatures, the existence of multiple reference genomes, and a lack of reference population frequency data. Clinicians need a simple bioinformatics tool that is user‐friendly, and bioinformaticians need a powerful informatics resource for programmatic usage. Here, we report the development and functionality of the MSeqDR mtDNA Variant Tool set (mvTool), a one‐stop mtDNA variant annotation and analysis web service. mvTool is built upon the MSeqDR infrastructure (https://mseqdr.org), with contributions of expert curated data from MITOMAP (https://www.mitomap.org) and HmtDB (https://www.hmtdb.uniba.it/hmdb). mvTool supports all mtDNA nomenclatures, converts variants to standard rCRS‐ and HGVS‐based nomenclatures, and annotates novel mtDNA variants. Besides generic annotations from dbNSFP and Variant Effect Predictor (VEP), mvTool provides allele frequencies in more than 47,000 germline mito‐genomes, and disease and pathogenicity classifications from MSeqDR, Mitomap, HmtDB and ClinVar (Landrum et al., 11). mvTools also provides mtDNA somatic variants annotations. ‘mvTool API’ is implemented for programmatic access using inputs in VCF, HGVS, or classical mtDNA variant nomenclatures. The results are reported as hyperlinked html tables, JSON, Excel and VCF formats. MSeqDR mvTool is freely accessible at https://mseqdr.org/mvtool.php.